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The Electronic Brain

(An invention based on Electronic Software Cells generated by completely automated Self-generating Software to create the Electronic Brain satisfying Ramamoorthy Specification based on the biological brain functions)

Post-Science Institute


The recent (2008) development of memelements is a tiny step toward the construction of an Electronic Brain. In Chinese, the computer is often called the electronic brain. The biological brain and the computer are enormously and qualitatively different. The computer, as its name implies, is a glorified calculator. John von Neumann co-invented the computer using the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) as its operation center. C. V. Ramamoorthy is the major critics of the von Neumann Architecture and summarizes his criticism in his discussion of the von Neumann Syndrome. The human brain is composed of biological cells, not simple circuit elements. Each biological cell contains all the information of the brain, and the whole human body. The Electronic Brain is based on a self-generating neural network of electronic software cells, each of which contains an entire programming language. Technically, the electronic software cell is called Self-generating Software System, which is a completely automated software invented in 1986 by Hugh Ching first disclosed in his 1996 patent “Completely Automated and Self-generating Software System” (Pat. No. 5,485,601). Currently, the software cell can self-generates itself to infinity or to fill up the disk, where each generated cell has a different name assigned by an external file. The proposed stages for the development of the Electronic Brain are (1) Develop of the memelement circuit, (2) Populate the memelement circuit with software cells, and (3) Construct the software cell neural network as the memelement circuits through self-generation. The invention of the Electronic Brain is based on the Ramamoorthy Specification or, for short, Ram Spec, which has expanded the von Neumann Syndrome to include most of the defects of the computer in comparison to the biological brain. This post-science project of the Electronic Brain will simulate the biological brain in the process of mankind’s self-creation and will study the expansion of the range of tolerance for survival of the living system in post-creation, which might reveal the root cause of the fuzziness nature of the living system. The very advanced concepts, such as neural network and fuzzy logic, in the development of the Electronic Brain have been equally applied to the creation of today’s machines with temporary life.

Software Cell

Hugh Ching October 1990 - July 2014

Biological And Software Cells: A Logical Accident Of Similarities Software is fully documented. Without documentation most of today's software can no longer function. The human baby is born without any documentation, yet it can function quite well. The main difference between software and a living organism is in the degree of automation. The "software cell" is based on a new concept in software automation. It is originally known as the Self-generating Software System (SSS) which, like the human baby, can operate without any documentation; yet, like all software, is always fully (but not necessarily well) documented.

The fact that the software cell, which is derived artificially and independent of any knowledge in biology, and the biological cell, which is created by natural forces, have nearly identical logic is the main motivation for this proposed research. The two cells show so many similarities (See Table) that it can be speculated that (1) the biological cell might be used to guide the future development of the software cell (In fact, the biological cell could have provided a guide for the discovery of the Self-generating Software System, or vice versa.) and (2) in turn, being fully documented, the software cell might fill in the missing links in the logic of the biological cell. The Self-generating Software System is a computing environment in which all the programs are generated programs, in contrast to most current software programs which are written by programmers. All the programs in SSS are generated by the initial program generator which must be able to generate itself in order to have a totally automated software environment.

Software is the bottleneck in computing. There are two major difficulties in software, namely (1) communication between programmers or between the user and the computer (inadequate documentation) and (2) communication between programs of different versions or of different operating systems. Before the discovery of SSS, the software difficulties stated above are not resolved. SSS, in essence, has solved the problem of software.

The Self-generating Software System is designed to separate users (problem specification) from computer technology. SSS produces software by feeding problem specifications, which are produced by answering questions in human language, into program generators, which are in computer language. The forms of the specifications are designed so that they are understandable to the computer. In SSS even the program generators have their problem specifications; the generators can generate themselves. When all the programs have problem specifications, users will be dealing only with the problem specifications and not with the inside codes of the programs. The major advantages of SSS are that it can self-improve, automatically document and update. SSSshould eventually eliminate all high-level computer languages and replace them with the human language of the user.

The Self-generating Software System is by itself a breakthrough in knowledge, because software will become the dominant form of knowledge when knowledge experts without the knowledge of computer programming can interact easily with the computer. Software automates knowledge. Software automation automates software. Finally SSS automates software completely.

There is one fundamental aspect commom to both the software cell and the biological cell. Both cells are among the most complex systems in software and in biology respectively. The software cell, like the biological cell, includes all the machine instructions (amino acids) and their generating and utility programs (protein), and all the problem specifications (DNA). Thus, instead of building complex system from simple components, as is done in most current software systems, the software cell builds complex system from an equally complex system, the software cell, just as is the case in biology. SSS currently is devoted mostly to execution. The cell spends mostly on overhead.

The software cell might open up a new field of technology based on the concept of the cell. Most of our current technology can be considered non-cell-based technology which is characterized by starting from the simple and building into the complex. The human is made of cells, and the cell contains all the information of the human. The technology based on the cell is from the complex to the complex, which may have the capability of reproducing the complex. In SSS each program can be a software cell; a wordprocessor, a spreadsheet, or a databased management program can regenerate itself in a form suitable to the user because it contains all the capability of the cell.

The new technology based on the concept of the cell is already blessed by the biological cell which can act as its guiding star. It should provide alternative approaches and new impetuses to the research in artificial intelligence, artificial life, software automation and robotics, which is software and hardware automation and should be one of our ultimate goals.

Research Plan: A One-To-One Mapping Of The Two Cells

The basic operation of the cell involves selecting the messages in DNA (specifications) and sending them through a protein generator(program generator) to produce protein(program). Ideally, direct copying should not be allowed in the generation processes. However, DNA can only replicate semi-conservatively, and the software cell has the same problem of not being able to generate with complete flexibility; somewhere partial copying is done. The codes (DNA and specifications) for generating the generator can be expected to be inflexible in both cells.

The program generator and the generator of the program generator in SSS seem to correspond respectively to the ribosomeand the nucleolus in the biological cell. The nucleolus appears to generate itself along with the DNA through replication during mitosis. To test the software cell, the initial phase of the proposed research will be devoted to make a detailed correspondence between the two generators in the two cells. SSS can be transformed into self-reproducing primitive bacteria (to study the origin of life ?). A point-by-point check of the corresponding logic of the two cells can be attempted; it is inconceivable that the biological cell can escape its parallel logic in the software cell, if there is an item-by-item match between the two cells. (SSS has already been demonstrated and a commercial version has been designed and under development.).


Hugh Ching (S.B., M.S., Sc.D. MIT, Postdoctor Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences, Research Associate UC Berkeley. Generalized Fluid Description, Quantitative Theory of Value, SSS)

Some biologists and engineers from UCB will participate.

Professors Dwight Egbert and Sami Fadali of University of Nevada, Reno have proposed to develop a Self-generating Single-user Disk Operating System, an MSDOS clone, based on SSS.

Nature Packs All Its Valuables Into A Speck Of DNA

Multicelled organisms are necessary to study artificial intelligence, which leads to many interesting and pertinent questions. Is the human being a biological computer ? Is life an illusion created out of complexity - an exhibition of nature's subtlety (and vivacity) ? Will the distinctions between living and non-living substances become unnecessary in the face of new theories on life, as the theroy of evolution erases the differences between the origins of species ? The investigation into the perception of pain will help us understand the origin of value. Most importantly, we want to find out for the following reason whether improvements on the biological cell can be made.

It appears that intellect originates from the human brain. However, the brain, as most living things, is developed from the cell. Thus, the cell is the source of intellect. Strictly speaking, as soon as the cell comes into existence, intelligence derivable from the cell and all the problems solvable by this intelligence should be considered already a part of our destiny; a new order can be established only when intelligence passes a certain threshold such that evolution can be replaced by design.

Ultimately, only fundamental improvements on the cell can be considered real progress. It would not be too far fetched to speculate that when civilization reaches a steady state (when we know enough about our world), it will be realized that the rational purpose of existence, or of life, is to improve on the cell - a continual process of nature to make itself more intelligent and beautiful, or simply to increase its own value. Table: Corresponding Items for Biological Cell and Software Cell

Biological Cell Software Cell (? = Uncertain)
----------------------- ---------------------------------------¬
Amino Acid Instruction; Programs (Protein) are made of instructions (Amino Acid). Analysis (Decoding cell) Synthesis (Coding software cell) AT TA CG GC (base of 4) 0 and 1 (Binary: base of 2) ATP Allowed computer time or memory
Cell........ Self-genarating Software System (All Specification Files + All Generators + All Programs + Allowed computer time or memory) Chromosomes.....All Specification Files Codon (64 = 4- 3)....... 6-bits byte (8 bits-parity-RNA/DNA check) DNA Specification File (which have to be retrieved into program for execution) Enzyme Program (utility) Evolution (Undocumented) Design of artificial life (Fully documented) Gene Specification File (partial) Homeobox........ Specification File for regulating other specifications Human.......... A highly complex cell-based computer (?) Life (?)....... Artificial Life based on software cell (?) Meiosis (?).... Splitting of software cell (?) Membrane........Program checking for allowable files in the directory of a software cell Mitosis (?).....Feeding all specifications through program generator; semiconservative Self-generation Nucleus Main Specification Files + Main Generators + Programs for regulating allowable files Nucleolus (?) Generator of program generator (rRNA) Pain (?)........Error Messages with complex feedbacks and interpretations (?); Question to ask is: How to make a machines feel pain ? Protein Program (for applications) Replication.... Semi-conservative generation of specifications Reproduction... Self-generation Ribosome (rRNA).. Program generator (specification+program) mRNA, tRNA..... Specifications in program (tRNA = one set) Transcription... Generation of specifications (RNA) Translation..... Generation of program (protein or polypeptide) Virus......... Incomplete software cell with specifications Not computer virus (which can only make direct, instead of semi-conservative, copies)
******************************************************************** Software Cell... Biological Cell ----------------------- ---------------------------------------¬ Generator....... Cell, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Ribosome Instruction..... Amino Acid Program Enzyme, Membrane, Protein, Virus Specification File (not directly executable).... Chromosomes, DNA, Gene, Homeobox Specifications RNA

Relating SSS to DNA (2000 Update) Project Start (Confidential prior to 1/31/2000 except to members Ram, Kunii, Tsai, Wang, Debra, Hugh)

Our associative memory enables us to access almost all the information in our memory. The associative memory is a high-level intelligence (machine logic or arithmetic are examples of low-level intelligence) and, therefore, should not be used in set theory as the foundation of mathematics. The foundation of mathematics should probably be rad theory (rad=radix or base of number system), which deals with integers, because machines without associative memory prefers the manipulation of integer numbers over the identification of objects. SSS (Self-generating Software System) uses the above two distinct preferences by humans and by machines in the design of an Universal User Interface (UUI) for human and machine communication. UUI is simply the familiar tree-structured, numerical multiple¬choice question format seen most often in computerized library search systems. The universal nature of UUI indicates that UUI can be used to replace any user interface. The numerical integer choices in UUI are for the machine to handle, and the graphics or the human language is for the humans to comprehend. As a practical example of the application of UUI, the dominant Microsoft Windows user interface is overly friendly to the user because it has not included the numerical choices with the items and, thus, has completely ignored the participation of the machine in the human-computer interaction. In UUI the numerical key inputs are, if needed, recorded in a program "speciiication file" to be easily manipulated, namely, auto-updated, auto-documented, and self-generated by the computer. Self¬generation will allow the self-generated software system to completely sever its tie to past technology. For example, the first question of UUI Of a program generator is: Choose (1) Input, (2) Output, (3) Calculate, (4) Print, (5) Others ? If we choose, say, 4, then the UUI will ask the next question: Choose (1) Print a number, (2) Print a string, (3) Print a variable, (4) Others ? If we choose 2, the UUI will ask: What is the string ?
After we input the string to be printed, the generator will guide the program execution to a GO"1'O statement or call label statement. The GOTO statement number will jump the execution to the address given by the statement number. A Permanent Record System (PRS) is designed to eliminate the need to remember the statement number, which conceptually can be used to represent any technical iniormation. PRS is invented to eliminate from computer usage all technical barriers, which, by the way, include foreign languages.

A PRS record has the general format consisting of three items:
statement number........ ADDRESS = statement number the record and an actual record in BASIC may look like :
5486483 ADDRESS=5486483:INSTRUC"1'ION$="PRINl„'+S"I'RINUs where the statement number is 5486483 and the record is INSTRUCTION$-'PRIN"I"'+STRING$. The repetition of ADDRESS=5486483 is to let the program know, when needed, the address 5486483 is the generating statement for printing a string. Thus, using the same associative memory, PRS has made it unnecessary to remember the technical information represented by the record at the address 5486483. For example, when we want to write the statement GOT0 5486483 in the self-generation of the SSS generator, we no longer need to commit to memory the statement number 5486483.

To relate SSS to DNA, we set in the PRS record:
statement number = ADDRESS = the record
The ADDRESS of software corresponds to the lock and key system in molecular biology. To be continued
A Demonstration Self-generating BASIC System (DSBS) has already been completed as a guide for the commercial version of SBS (20% of which has also been completely by June 1990). DSBS is presented in full in the report Software Automation Demonstration of Section 3 of this Business Plan. The following is a printout of the actual first few screen displays of DSBS:
Demonstration Self-generating BASIC System (1990)

Anyone over 9th grade can write programs. You can write a program by answering questions.

What is the name of your program? (Type RETURN key after you finish.) DSBS
Choose one of the numbers in the next question:
*(1) Print;(2)Question;(3)Compute & Logic;(4)Files;(5)Exit;BS;Ins;De1;A;L;J;H ? 1

( Answer 1 Statement no= 1010 )
(1)Print a statement on Screen; (2) To Printer. (3) Print statement=variable on Screen; (4) To Printer. (5) Clear Screen; (6) Others ? 5

( Answer 2 Statement no= 1020 )

*(1) Print;(2)Question;(3)Compute & Logic;(4)Files;(5)Exit;BS;Ins;De1;A;L;J;H ? 1

( Answer 3 Statement no= 1030 )
(1)Print a statement on Screen; (2) To Printer. (3) Print statement=variable on Screen; (4) To Printer. (5) Clear Screen; (6) Others ? 1

( Answer b Statement no= 1040 )
Type in the statement to be printed out (Type RETURN key after you finish.) Demonstration Self-generating BASIC System

*(1) Print;(2)Question;(3)Compute & Logic;(4)Files;(5)Exit;BS;Ins;De1;A;L;J;H ? 1

( Answer 9 Statement no= 1090 )
(1)Print a statement on Screen; (2) To Printer. (3) Print statement=variable on Screen; (4) To Printer. (5) Clear Screen; (6) Others ? 1

( Answer 10 Statement no= 1100 )
Type in the statement to be printed out (Type RETURN key after you finish.) Anyone over 6th grade can write programs using S/A.
DSBS is a self-generating program generating; it can be used to demonstrate the self-generating capability of SSS. The following is the first few screen output of a generated program of DSBS trying to self-generate DSBS:

Demonstration Self-generating BASIC System

Anyone over 6th grade can write programs using S/A. You can write programs by answering questions. This is a GENERATED PROGRAM !

What is the name of the program to be generated ? (Type RETURN after finishing) APPPRO
Choose one of the numbers in the following question:

(1) Print; (2) Question; (3) Compute & Logic; (4) Files; (5) Others;BS;Ins;Del? 1
(1) Print a statement on Screen; (2) To Printer. (3) Print statement=variable on Screen; (4) Statement=variable to Printer. (5) Clear Screen. (6) Others ? 5

(1) Print; (2) Question; (3) Compute & Logic; (4) Files; (5) Others;BS;Ins;Del?
(1) Print a statement on Screen; (2) To Printer. (3) Print statement=variable on Screen; (4) Statement=variable to Printer. (5) Clear Screen. (6) Others ?
Type in the statement you want to be printed out?
This is an application program generated by a GENERATED program generator.
The above generated program is capable of generatan.0the following application program (in full):
This is an application program generated by a GENERATED program What is the value of the first variable ?
What is the value of the second variable ?
The third variable is the product of the The value of the third variable is 35 What program do you want to go to ? DSBS generator.
first and the second variables.
SSS can be easily self-modified by users; SSS can be continually self-improved. One important example of the application of this self-modification feature of SSS can be demonstrated using DSBS to translate itself into German (or any other languages - computer or human). The following is the same screen printout of the previous page of a generated program imitating DSBS, but it is in German:
Beweiss Selbst-erzeugen BASIC System Dieser ist ein ERZEUGT PROGRAM !
Was ist das name von seinen programm ?
Wahlen ein zahl in das nachst frage:
############################################################################# (1) Drucken; (2) Frage; (3) Rechnen & Logik; (4) Akte; (5) Ander; BS;Ins;Del ? 1
(1) Drucken Schirm erklarung; (2) Druck; (3) Drucken Schirm erklarung=unbekannt; (4) Druck; (5) Klaren Schirm; (6) Ander ?
(1) Drucken; (2) Frage; (3) Rechnen ~ Logik; (4) Akte; (5) Ander; BS;Ins;Del ? 1
(1) Drucken Schirm erkle.rung; (2) Druck; (3) Drucken Schirm erklarung=unbekannt; (4) Druck; (5) Klaren Schirm; (6) Ander ?
Was ist seiner erklarung sein wollen druckt aus ?
This is an application program generated by a GENERATED program generator. ############################################################################# {1) Drucken; (2) Frage; (3) Rechnen & Logik; (4) Akte; (5) Ander; BS;Ins;Del ?

(1) Drucken Schirm erklarung; (2) Druck; (3) Drucken Schirm erklarung=unbekannt; (4) Druck; (5) Klaren Schirm; (6) Ander ?
Was ist seiner erklarung sein wollen druckt aus ?
############################################################################# (1) Drucken; (2) Frage; (3) Rechnen & Logik; (4) Akte; (5) Ander; BS;Ins;Del ?


Three Generations of Software Standards

First Generation: IBM High Technical Barriers


Second Generation: Microsoft Plug and Play


Third and Final Generation:

From Plug and Play to Human-Language Programming


The Solution of Software is a condition in which the human user can communicate with the computer solely and forever in native human languages.


"We live in a universe of the Machanizor."
Hugh Ching, Founder of Post-Science

The name Computer implies a glorified calculator and should be repalced by Machanizor.
The Computer is just the worst Machanizor in the universe and is made here on earth.

Human-Language Programming can be described technically as the combination of the lowest level machine language in the form of integers and the highest level natural language in the form of human native languages or multimedia expressions, where the integers will be processed by the computer, and the human languages and expressions will be processed by the human.

Definition of

Human-Language Programming

"Human-Language Programming means that forever all human users will communicate with the computer exclusively in native human languages or human-understandable multimedia expressions." . . . Post-Science

Custom Search

* * * * * News * * * * *

Knowledge Breakthrough(October 2011):
Human-Language Programming Computer Language for 10-years old

Programming will be the fourth "R"

of the basic skills of Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic. Human Language Programming can be used to enhance the learning of reading, writing, and arithmetic through programming.

Click Here to See Samples of Universal User Interface

Human-Language Programming combines Computing with Words of Lotfi Zadeh with Computing with Integers of Chien Yi Lee to form its Universal User interface. The human user reads the Words and the computer reads the Integers.

Two more NSF Proposals Submitted (9/21/2011):
(1) Completely Automated Software Foundation and Its Applications in All People Programming Language(APPL) and Self-generated Software Cell Simulating Biological Cell (Click here for more Summary) (Click here for 15-page Project Description) (Click here for 2-page References)
(2) Jumpulse and Law of Touch Demonstrated by Prolonged Contact between Ball and Racket during Collision (Click here for more Summary) (Click here for 15-page Project Description) (Click here for 2-page References)


Important Demonstration of Completely Automated Software:

1. Copy two programs (Click here for (Click here for new.bas) to DOS operating system,
2. Type at DOS Prompt psb new.txt (e.g. C:\>psb new.txt) (you might need to rename new.txt to new.bas: ren new.txt new.bas),
3. Follow instructions (first time try choosing Item 1 Program Name = test and then type 1 1 1 Hello {Enter} 6 1 1 ) (Type {Enter} to continue), and
4. Read instructions and write programs with this NEW computer language for anyone over 12 years old.

The human-language program generator New is written with a program generator Old, which can self-generate and, thus, desociates with past technology from which it is derived.

Post-Science Vision

The world will be greatly improved by post-science through complete automation when Self-Manufactured General Purpose Robots, which can safely interact with a uncontrolled environment, are programmed by completely automated All People Programming Language, which can be used by all people over the age of six, and the Robots are valued by the Infinite Spreadsheet, which determines the value of the Robots taking into consideration all its benefits and losses to infinity in time. The Self-Manufactured General Purpose Robots, the All People Programming Language (APPL), the Infinite Spreadsheet, and their byproducts are described below.

Complete Automation

Chinese Version

Complete Automation creates permanent entities
with infinitely greater value than temporary entities

Hugh Ching

Permanent entities, such as permanent software and DNA, can be created through complete automation and will be infinitely more valuable than temporary entities. An example of these permanent entities with great value is foods, which can be completely automatically produced by nature. Funding decisions should be based on valuation, not peer review. Truly original, transformative innovations should have no peers.

Proposals to National Science Foundation have initiated four post-science debates: (1) Software Debate (Completely vs. Partially Automated Software), (2) Valuation Debate (Infinite vs. finite consideration), (3) Touch Debate (Is touch a physics problem? A proposal has been submitted to Dynamic Systems ), and (4) Freedom Debate (Constrained vs. Freedom, e.g. Free Market, Free Software vs. non-violable laws of nature and the software design criterion of complete automation). NSF should initiate a Complete Automation Research or Debate to create permanent entities. Today's engineers can only create temporary products, which will someday become obsolete. The completely automated software proposal has been submitted to Computing Expeditions, and completely automated hardware in the form of Self-Manufactured General Purpose Robots should be solicited by EFRI, for the software will become DNA, and the Robot, human.
(Click here for more information)

Centers and Laboratories

[Complete Automation Laboratory] [Valuation Center]

Research Proposals

Click Here to see Post-Science Knowledge Map

[Completely Automated Software] [Physics of Touch] [Solution of Value]
[Universal Permanent Number] [Replacing Peer Review with Valuation]

Jumpulse Demonstrations

The concept of jumpulse is really an extension of the Newtonian concept of impulse. Theoretically, the derivatives should not stop at the second order. But the mathematical description is after the fact, whereby only second order derivative seems to be significant, ignoring all higher derivatives. Mathematics should have its own merit independent of the physical part of the reality. In kinetic theory, especially for plasma physics, only the Generalized Fluid Description, which generalizes prolonged contact, gives a full description of plasma fluid:

Generalized Fluid Equation

where F is further generalized to be a distribution function of arbitrary objects in the generalized phase space of infinite dimensions.


Jumpulse Stroke with Double-Hitting Demonstrating Prolonged Contact

Jumpulse Dance

(In Honor of Ta-You Wu, Father of Chinese Physics, Inventor of Jumpulse)
Amy Demonstrates Jumpulse Dance

Jumpulse can make a car to do the following.

Prolonged Contact happens after collision due to a Jumpulse Mechanism on the red car.

Incubator Training

[Infinite Spreadsheet]
[Universal Permanent Number]
[The Computer Newspaper]
[Complete Automated Self-Checkout]
[UPN (Universal Permanent Number) Real Estate]

(See descriptions below)

Infinite Spreadsheet

The Infinite Spreadsheet is necessary in solving

The Equation Distinguishing Post-Science from the Rest of the World.

The defect of economics can be traced to the fundamental difficulty in determine the variable q(p) in the equation for constructing Q(P), Quantity as a function of the Price in the Demand Curve

Demand Curve Equation

where Q is the Quantity plotted versus the Price P, and q(p) is the quantity demanded at a given price p. The function q(p) can only be determined with an infinite spreadsheet extending to infinity in time, and the integration is over p = P to p =Infinity, which covers spatial infinity.

Infinite Spreadsheet Incubator Companies

[Stock Valuation] [Real Estate Valuation] [Business Valuation]
[Intellectual Property Valuation] [IPO Valuation]
[Merger and Acquisition Valuation] [Green Valuation]
[Option Valuation] [Loan Valuation][Research Project Valuation]
[Environmental Valuation] [Mining Valuation] [Nuclear Reactor Valuation]
[Software Valuation] [Hardware Valuation] [Robot Valuation]
[Natural Disaster Valuation] [Manmade Disaster Valuation (Financial Crises)]
[Research Proposal Valuation (Replacing Peer Review)]

Universal Permanent No.

"Universal Permanent Number is for the global search of knowledge. Today, the most popular search engine, namely, Google, is designed for search news items. Since news changes continually, the search results are updated constantly to keep up with the most desired news. Knowledge, by definition, is fixed and should be timeless. Google should remedy its defect in the search for knowledge by identifying each piece of knowledge with a permanent name in the form of integer and rank the knowledge highest when a search is for the Universal Permanent Number." Hugh Ching

Universal Permanent Numbers Explained for Application as

Globally Searchable Unique Identification Integer Names

Universal Permanent Numbers are integers from minus infinity to plus infinity. They can be used as Globally Searchable Unique Identification Integer Names (GSUIIN). GSUIN are like ISBN, the book numbers. ISBN applies only to books, and in a global search, it might come into conflict with other numbers. ISBN can be considered the incorrectly conceived version of GSUIN, or a pre-Internet and pre-globalized number system.

GSUIN as intellectual properties are exactly like real properties. Each integer of the complete set of unique integers from minus infinity to plus infinity is an intellectual property of value. It can be titled, recorded, and transferred, just like a real property and can be just as valuable.

Each integer of GSUIN can represent a book, a person, or a merchandise. It is a globally unique integer name given to an entity or information. What the integer represent will be remembered, updated, and manipulated by the patented Completely Automated And Self-generating Software. For example, if a university buys a million GSUINs for its alumni. It can use the Self-generation Software to arrange and automatically update the alumni information in terms or names alphabetically, professions, ages, etc. and make the information globally searchable.

The practical use of GSUIN is the same as book numbers ISBN, but guarantees permanently that there will be no conflict in a global search. It will put intellectual properties in par with real property and, thus, demonstrate the value of intellectual properties.

The effectiveness of GSUIN has been proven by the need of ISBN, and its value has been proven by the value of Internet domain names. In fact, both ISBN and domain names, and all the other number systems, should switch to GSUIN. Generally, the world should switch from designs based on short-sighted and narrow-minded considerations to designs based on infinite and global views to achieve permanent, not temporary, solutions.

Business Plan

Universal Permanent Number Standard

Selling Globally Searchable Unique Integer Names (GSUIN)

Executive Summary

"Simply the world's best number system." Prof. Ram (C. V. Ramamoorthy)

Universal Permanent Integer ID Numbers are based on the patent on a permanent software ("Completely Automated And Self-generating Software System" Pat. No. 5,485,601), which enables its users to remember and retrieve an unlimited amount of information. Universal Permanent Numbers are the set of distinct integers from minus infinity to plus infinity. They are used as names of permanent entities, such as knowledge in the form of books, journal articles, patents, etc., land parcels, and Unicodes, which are currently permanent numbers (distinct to infinity in time), but not universal (distinct in the infinite space). Naming permanent entities is the first step into the Age of Life Science, which is characterized by the creation of permanent entities and complete automation. Integers are used as the names of the permanent entities because the integer is the native language of the machine or the computer. Due to its unlimited growth in number, Universal Permanent Numbers will eventually have to be remembered and managed by Permanent Software.

The theoretical model of Universal Permanent Number Standard is identical to that of Unicodes. While Unicode only apply to characters of languages, Universal Permanent Number covers all entities, thus, avoiding conflict universally and permanently. The business model of Universal Permanent Number Standard can follow that of ICANN, which checks for uniqueness of domain names, but allows private companies to sell the domain names. In the case of Universal Permanent Numbers, there can only be one source, which holds the copyright to Universal Permanent Numbers.

There are at least several thousands more web pages than web sites. If search engine companies allows the submission of Universal Permanent Numbers, which corresponds to web pages, search process can be greatly enhanced. Universal Permanent Number Standard should be one of the most valuable intellectual properties in the world today. Charging just $1.00 per Number, the market cap can easily reach trillions of dollars.

Universal Permanent Number Applications

a. Transportation (Permanent Product Numbers)
b. Library Search Systems (books, Journals, articles, etc.)
c. Graphical Database (based on Homotopy Theory)
d. Encryption System (SSS scramble/de-scramble key/lock generators numbers)
e. All People Programming Language (APPL) (where the permanent numbers will represent instructions to the computer)
f. Dictionaries (words for all the international languages)
g. Registration Numbers (SSN, DLN)
h. People [14 digits fixed prefix 1]
i. Ships
j. Real properties [14 digits fixed prefix 2]
k. Animals (species)
l. Plants
m. Insects
n. Heavenly bodies (Stars, planets)
o. Genetic Information (DNA, genes)
p. DNS (Domain Name System)

UPN Real Estate

The UPN Real Estate is established to sell Universal Permanent Numbers to all county assessors. A complete number system for all the real estate parcels should be planned, possibly, using 14 digits with the fixed prefix of 2. The company will be a test case for all the other UPN companies.

Automated Self-Checkout

The core of the Complete Automated Self-Checkout is UPN. All the transactions will be centralized through global satellite communication. All the changes will be recorded under the numerous UPN systems.

The Computer Newspaper, which could become the world center of information transfer and is described below, would be the most important source of inputs for the Infinite Spreadsheet, which represents information analyses for rational decision making.

The Computer Newspaper

Craigslist and Google should be rated the two most important companies in the world because they represent centers of information. Ebay apparently realizes the same conclusion when it tries to establish Kijiji, an obvious direct copying of Craigslist. From the experience in turning Homefinders Bulletin in the late 1970s from negative cash flow into the first financially successful computerized information company, Hugh Ching wrote the report "The Computer Newspaper." For all its financial success, Google has only replaced the display ads of the newspaper. Craigslist ran Homefinders Bulletin in Berkeley out of business in 2004 with its more efficient and lower (zero) cost information system. Craigslist is replacing the classified section of the newspaper. Ebay controls the Auction Section, which is one of the least interesting sections of the classified section of the traditional newspaper. Now Ebay is trying to become a contender for the Computer Newspaper. Being the center of information, the Computer Newspaper is a necessary international monopoly. Which company will win the ultimate prize: Google or Craigslist? Whether they are aware of it or not, they are competing for the ultimate prize: The Computer Newspaper. The display ad section of the newspaper only represents 10 to 20% of the total newspaper revenue, while the classified section, 60%. With just the rental section, Homefinders Bulletin ran the 30-years-old local newspaper, the Berkeley Gazette, out of business. Google is a cash cow. It has a huge cash reserve and can expand into the classified section without any financial limitation. Craigslist has the price advantage (backed by its efficient technical people) because it charges nothing. In sum, Google has the cash advantage, and Craigslist has the price advantage. Google is superior in technology, and Graigslist is ahead in theory.

The business plan of "The Computer Newspaper" is gradually becoming obsolete as Internet companies have turned the proposed plan into reality, particularly, Graigslist working on the classified ad section, Google on the display ad section through an index search service, Yahoo on the news, eBay on the auction section of classified ad, etc. Yet, few, if any, companies realize the full potential of, and the significance of the competition for, the globally monopolistic Computer Newspaper. Post-Science Institute is impartial to the competition (slightly leaning toward Craigslist), but would definitely continue to be an very interested observer.

Projects for Six-Years-Old

(1) Universal User Interface of Completely Automated Software.

(2) Infinite Spreadsheet Stock Rate of Return Calculation.

(3) Double-Hitting a Ball with Jumpulse.

Please contact John Jin Zheng for Demonstration of all three Items: zhengjin at; (510) 952-8796 47096 Mission Falls Ct., Fremont, CA 94539


Politicians fights for the economic pie.
Knowledge expands the pie.

Human progress can progress only through the advancement of knowledge. As the world was once heavily burdened by its pre-scientific culture, it is today trapped in its scientific culture.

Science is based on empirical verification. It does not deal with value. Value is the sum total of all the benefits and losses to infinity in time. Since infinity never arrives, value cannot be empirically verified. The solution of value, thus, must satisfy the rigor of mathematics and logic.

Automation is the key to the increase in productivity. Today, science and technology can only achieve partial automation and manufacture products with temporary life. Complete automation is needed to create products of permanent life.

Knowledge needs to advance beyond science into post-science, which deals with the solution of value and the technology of complete automation. Only knowledge can change our fundamental views regarding our world, and only our changed views can change the world.

Old News

Two NSF Proposals Submitted (2/15/2011):
(1) Infinite Spreadsheet: Methodology for Full Disclosure in Rational Decision-Making; Its Application to Legislation HR 4173: Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Click here for more Summary)
(2) Dynamic System of Touch, Physics of Collision without Bounce, Law of Touch: Jumpulse Experimentation and Simulation, Transforming Sports Technology/Physics/Physical Education (Click here for more Summary)

NPU Advisory Member Meeting: Sat. Nov. 27, 2010 at Adm Bldg. Concluding Remark by Hugh Ching to T. L. Kunii

NPU Professional Seminar: The Research and Incubation Programs at Northwestern Polytechnic University (NPU); Saturday, November 13, 2010, 3:00-4:00PM; Contact: zhengjin (at); (510) 952-8796 (Click here for more information)

Global Education Consortium: Green Movement; November 7-11, 2010; Theme Topic from Research Team on "Green Finance and Total Valuation" (Click here for more information)

For further information please contact Amy: postscience at live dot com.

This is the UPN for Hugh Ching